A detailed look at hypo- and hyper-natremic states through simple mathematical principles and equations. Ideal for any healthcare provider who wants a more detailed understanding of sodium and water balance through mathematics.

This journal club discusses how vasopressin may regulate NaCl cotransport in the distal tubule, and may explain why thiazide diuretics are effective in managing patients with diabetes insipidus.

It is not known why thiazide diuretics exert an antidiuretic effect in patients with diabetes insipidus. This editorial briefly illustrates the consensus belief and highlights the findings of a scientific investigation that lends further support to the leading hypothesis for this paradox.

A thorough review of the various equations used to calculate the free water clearance in humans. Attention is paid to the following formulas: 1) Free water clearance, 2) electrolyte-free water clearance, and 3) modified electrolyte-free water clearance.

This short review article explains the differences between dehydration and hypovolemia and how the kidney can differentially handle free water versus salt-water. It is essential reading for all Nephrologists who want a clear understanding of the differences between hydration and volume states.